What Is A Welding Machine And How It Works

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Welding is one of the simplest and the most commonly used operations in the commercial automotive processes. Not just for commercial purposes, welding finds a lot of applications at the domestic level as well. If you are wondering about the different types of welding joints and the advantages of welding, then you are in the right place.

This is a detailed guide about the distinct features of a welding machine and its working mechanism.

What is a welding machine?

A welding machine is a type of small machinery that melts and fuses metal parts together by generating heat. They are also known as welding guns or welders. This is one of the most essential tools for a welding operator.

How Does Welding Work?

Joining Metals

Welding generates high amounts of heat that completely melts the base material. Once the base material is melted, a filler material is deposited on it. The molten part is fused with another metal and is allowed to cool down. The fused joint would be stronger than the parent metal.

In some cases, the pressure is also applied in addition to heat to fuse the metals. To prevent contamination and oxidation, a shielding gas is used to protect the melted region until it cools down.

Joining Plastics

Similar to metal welding, plastics are also subjected to heat and pressure that melts them. The ends or surfaces are joined together to create fusion and are allowed to cool down. Based on the heating process, they can be classified into external or internal heating methods.

Joining Wood

This process uses heat generated from friction to join two pieces of wooden materials. Firstly, the materials to be fused are subjected to high pressure and then their linear movement creates friction.

As a result, heat is generated which fuses the two materials together. This is a very rapid process that allows you to fuse wooden materials quickly without the use of adhesives or nails.

Common Joint Configurations

There are 6 common joint configurations in welding. They are,

Butt Joint

This connection is made by fusing the ends of two metal parts at an angle of 135 to 180 degrees to one another.

T Joint

This connection is made by joining the end of one metal part to the face of another metal such that they are perpendicular or at an angle of 90 degrees to each other.

Corner Joint

This connection is made by fusing the ends of two metal parts such that their angle is between 30 and 135 degrees in the fused region.

Edge Joint

This connection is made by fusing the ends of two metal parts such that the angle between them is 0 and 30 degrees.

Cruciform Joint

This connection is made by fusing two bars to another plate at right angles on either side of the plate.

Lap Joint

This connection is made by joining two overlapping metal parts at an angle of 0 to 5 degrees in the region of the joint.

Types of Welding Joints

Based on the configuration, welding joints can be classified into two different types,

Slot Weld

The slot weld joins the surface of one metal to another by filling the weld material through a hole present in one of the overlapping metal.

Plug Weld

The plug weld is made by depositing filler metal in a hole present in one overlapping metal which binds the other through the exposed surface.

Based on the level of penetration, welding joints can be of two types,

Full Penetration Weld

In this, the metal fully penetrates the surface of the other material and consumes the root of the joint. This is commonly referred to as complete joint penetration weld in western countries. This weld is used for joints that have to handle high levels of stress.

Partial Penetration Weld

In this, the weld metal only penetrates halfway through the thickness of the other material. This is commonly termed as partial joint penetration weld in western countries.

Advantages of Welding Machine

The joints created by welding can handle exceptional levels of stress without losing their shape.

A wide range of metals, alloys, polymers, and ceramics can be fused using welding processes.

Welding can be done manually or through automated means.

The joints are leak-proof and do not allow any fluid to pass through them.

In hazardous environments, the welding process can be done using robots.

Welding can be performed outdoors on the site or indoors and then transported to the site.

Welding is an affordable machining process.

Disadvantages of Welding Machine

In case if you want to separate the welded joints, there is no way. The welded are impossible to separate.

As welding uses heat energy, the base properties of metals are degraded.

The uneven heat generation distorts the metal and causes residual stress

It takes a considerable level of skill to operate the welding machine.

The equipment used in the welding process are very expensive.


Welding is one of the most preferable machining operations because of its long-range in machining different types of materials. If you are just starting to use the welding for domestic purposes, it might be difficult to operate initially. However, once you get a hang of it, you will be able to operate it easily.

We believe that our article was helpful in clearing your queries regarding the welding process. However, if you would like to know anything specific related to welding, let us know in the comments section.

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