Drill machines are available in different types, each designed for specific use. While some of them are quite easy to operate, others require high skills and sound knowledge of the device.
If you are not aware of the various types of drills available, you are on the right page. In this article, we shall learn the types, their working principle, and their applications.
Keep reading till the end to learn everything you need to know about the drill machines.
Let us get into our discussion of what a drilling machine is.
What are the Drilling Machines?
Drilling machines are those powerful tools used for drilling or cutting a hole in the walls or other surfaces. It is indispensable equipment mostly used in machinery manufacturing industries and other factories. Before we discuss about the various types of drills available, let us go through the different parts of the machine.
What are Some Common Parts of a Drill Machine?
To get a better understanding of the drill machine, let us have a look at some of its common parts.
Base: This is the most crucial component of the drill machine, as it acts as the base of the device. Made from cast iron, it carries the entire weight of the machine. The column of the drill comes mounted vertically on this base.
Column or Pillar: The column or pillar is yet another crucial part of the machine that sits vertically on one side of the base. Made from cast iron, it helps in supporting the armload as well as the drill head. It facilitates the movement of the arm, i.e., in the clockwise or anti-clockwise direction.
Radial Arm: This is an upper arm situated on top of the column horizontally. You can raise or lower the arm to allow the worktable to accommodate workpieces of various heights. It has the drill head on it.
Drill Head: The drill head comes mounted on the radial arm. You can slide this head up and down accordingly based on the requirement of your job.
Types of Drilling Machines
Based on the purpose and structure, we can categorize drilling machines into the following types:
- Portable Drilling Machine
- Radial Drilling Machine
- Upright or Column Drill Machine
- Gang Drilling
- Sensitive Drilling Machine
- Multi-Spindle Drilling
- Vertical Turret Type Drilling Machine
- Automatic Drilling Machine
- Deep Hole Drilling Machine
- Pillar Drilling Machine
- Milling Machine
1. Portable Drilling Machine
This is the most commonly used drilling machine. Many manufacturing companies use it, and you can also find it on most homes.
Also known as a hand drilling machine, this device comes with an electric motor. It is small and compact in size, hence the name, portable. One can carry this machine along with him to his work location.
People use it to drill small holes on the surfaces.
A portable drilling machine is best suitable for surfaces or materials like wood, stone, metals, etc.
The small motor of this machine is capable of drilling holes with a diameter of 12mm to up to 18mm diameter. They can operate at high speeds.
2. Radial Drilling Machine
A radial drilling machine is the most versatile and largest of all the drills available.
This machine consists of a radial arm, vertical column, drill head, spindle, feed, etc.
It is a single spindle device that is capable of handling heavy and large works that a smaller
drill cannot do.
A radial drilling machine is ideal for heavy-duty work and for drilling a larger number of holes.
The radial drilling machine facilitates angular hole drilling by allowing the radial arm to rotate on a horizontal axis. The speed of spindles and the feed of the machine range from about 20 to 1600 rpm and 0.05 to 3 mm, respectively. You can also do angular cutting with these devices. You can accomplish that by providing a swivelling arrangement to the drilling head.
3. Upright Drilling Machine
Upright drilling machines are the tools used for drilling medium and large-sized holes.
These machines are again of two types based on the column. They are – round column section upright drilling machine and box column section upright drilling machine. The upright devices also come with spindle feed and speed.
These tools are mostly used for producing large holes in the heavy or larger parts.
The upright drilling machine is ideal for heavy-duty drilling and also for making a large number of holes that are larger in size.
These machines allow a power feed mechanism to the operator. The spindle comes with variable speed ranges, i.e., from 75 rpm to 3500 rpm. The spindle disengages automatically when it reaches its upper and lower limit of travel.
4. Gang Drilling Machine
The gang drilling machine is that specific type of drilling machine that is capable of drilling a massive number of holes simultaneously.
These devices come with a common table, base, spindle, like every other machine. In addition to those, they have four to six drill heads placed side-by-side. Each drilling head has a separate motor for working.
You can use a gang drilling machine for multiple operations like drilling, counterboring, reaming, etc.
The gang drilling machine is best suitable for drilling holes of different sizes. You can use it in place of a multi-spindle drilling machine for cost-saving.
The several spindles of the device facilitate quick movement of work between the spindles. You can use these tools for various applications like multiple hole drilling, etc.
5. Sensitive Drilling Machine
Also known as bench drilling machines, these devices are for making small holes at a higher rate.
Sensitive drilling machines come with a bench containing bolts and nuts. They also have a base, spindle, spindle head, table, drill head, etc. These devices come in both floor and table types.
The primary purpose of these machines is to allow the operator to apply less pressure and adjust the applied pressure accordingly.
A sensitive drilling machine is ideal for making small holes at an infinite speed ratio.
The motor of the device has a speed of 800 to 9000 rpm with a maximum drilling capacity of 12.5 mm.
6. Multi-Spindle Drilling Machine
Multi-spindle drilling machines are production machines designed mainly for drilling many parts with accuracy.
As the name says, they contain multiple spindles connected to one main work head.
The primary purpose of using a multi-spindle drilling machine is to drill a large number of parts that have many holes in closer proximity.
A multi-spindle drilling machine is best suitable for drilling a large number of holes simultaneously on a single workpiece.
The multi-spindle drilling machines facilitate production at a very high rate because of the several spindles in them.
7. Vertical Turret Type Drilling Machine
These are small and compact configuration devices consisting of a high precision spindle,
cutting tools and several drilling heads mounted on a turret.
They are exclusively designed for construction industries, die sinking, and contouring industries.
They are ideal for a range of workshop activities like cutting, drilling, reaming, counterboring, etc.
The different types of cutting tools help in cutting, drilling, reaming, etc., and that too in the desired sequence.
8. Automatic Drilling Machine
Automatic drilling machines are those tools that eliminate using manpower.
It consists of multiple unit heads that have either single or multiple spindles.
They are exclusively proposed for the cycle of drilling.
An automatic drilling machine is best suitable for high production work. It helps you get lots of work done in no time.
They use electricity or compressed air for work.
9. Deep-Hole Drilling Machine
As the name suggests, these machines are for drilling deeper holes whose length is thrice the size of a drill.
It consists of a rotating tool, rotating workpiece, and a counter-rotating tool and workpiece, shaft, coolant supply, and chip box. Also, they may contain single or multiple spindles.
These devices are exclusively for drilling deep holes in connecting rods, barrels, long spindles, etc.
A deep hole drilling machine is ideal for drilling deep holes with a ratio of 20:1 depth to diameter and even more.
These machines facilitate drilling such holes with great accuracy, efficiency, and reliability.
10. Pillar Drilling Machine
A pillar type drilling machine is that type of tool specifically used for precise drilling of holes
to an exceptional profundity.
Also known as a drill press or bench drill, this device consists of a locking lever, chuck, guard, table, table lock, pillar, lever, and motor.
These heavy, sturdy, and high-tech machines are for various domestic purposes.
A pillar drilling machine is ideal for drilling multiple holes of the same depth and dimension in succession.
Pillar drilling machines offer greater efficiency and high precision when drilling holes.
11. Milling Machine
A milling machine is a multi-functional drilling tool, which is the most influential and versatile kind of machine.
It consists of a base, column, knee, saddle, table, over-arm, and spindle.
Having a multi-functional capacity, these devices are suitable for all purposes. Constructional engineers mostly use these machines to drill in heavy and bulky surfaces
A milling machine is ideal for both drilling and milling.
They are capable of providing a flat surface of the workpiece. You can even use these machines to make gears and more.
I hope this article helped you get all the information regarding drilling machines, their various types, and their applications. I am sure you are now equipped with full knowledge of the drills.
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